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Selected Online Educational Resources

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Resources provided by 
Arlene Hirschfelder and Paulette F. Molin

Articles, FAQs, and More

American Indian Perspectives on Thanksgiving. For Teachers Grades 4 -8. National Museum of the American Indian.

American Indian Sports Team Mascots.

American Indians in Children’s Literature (blog). Debbie Reese.

See also “Native American Children’s Literature Recommended Reading List,” by Debbie Reese. Longmont, CO: First Nations Development Institute, 2016.

Americans, a National Museum of the American Indian exhibition that showcases a wide range of objects with American Indian names and imagery. January 18, 2018 to 2022 in Washington, D.C. Exhibition website:

Change the Mascot. Launched by the Oneida Nation, a national campaign to remove the racial epithet “r*dskins” as the name of the NFL team in Washington, DC.

Ending the Legacy of Racism in Sports & the Era of Harmful “Indian” Sports Mascots. National Congress of American Indians, October 2013.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). U.S. Department of the Interior, Indian Affairs.

Fryberg, Stephanie A. et al. “Of Warrior Chiefs and Indian Princesses: The Psychological Consequences of American Indian Mascots.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30 (2008): 208-218.

Jennings, Julianne. “The History of ‘Ten Little Indians.” Indian Country Today, October 11, 2012.

Making the Invisible Visible: A Policy Blueprint from Urban Indian America. National Urban Indian Family Coalition, June 2015.

Miranda, Carolina A. “Why American Indian Images Became Potent, Cartoonish Advertising Symbols.” Los Angeles Times, January 29, 2018.

Montana American Indian Caucus. “Guest Opinion: We Are Not Pocahontas.” Billings Gazette, July 9, 2018.

“Myth of the Vanishing Indian.” The Pluralism Project, Harvard University.

National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI).

Reclaiming Native Truth: A Project to Dispel America’s Myths and Misconceptions. A joint initiative of First Nations Development and Echo Hawk Consulting launched in June 2016.

Robertson, Dwanna. “The Myth of Indian Casino Riches.” Indian Country Today, April 19, 2017.

Stolen Identities: The Impact of Racist Stereotypes on Indigenous People. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs United States Senate, 112th Congress, 1st Sess., May 5, 2011.

Wisconsin Indian Education Association Indian Mascot and Logo Task Force.


“Breaking Stereotypes of Native American Artists.” PBS News Hour, 2014, 5:59 minutes.

“Changing the Way We See Native Americans.” Matika Wilbur. TEDx Teachers College, 2014, 19:44 minutes.  

“Charlie Hill on the Richard Pryor Show - 1977,” The Rezzurected, 2010, 5:10 minutes.

“Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian.” Smithsonian/NMAI, 2009, 10:11 minutes.

“How Hollywood Stereotyped the Indian.” Frames in Motion, 2007, 5:21 minutes.

“I’m Not the Indian You Had in Mind.” Thomas King, Director/Writer. Big Soul Productions, 2007, 5:28 minutes.

Keene, Adrienne. “Navajo Flasks, Hipster Headdresses, and ‘Magic in North America’: Native Representations in Fashion, Media, and Popular Culture.” From Tarzan to Tonto: Stereotypes as Obstacles Toward a More Perfect Union: A Special Program Examining the Pervasiveness of Stereotypes in American Culture. NMAI, 2017, 16:10 minutes.

“My Once Life” by Pamela J. Peters, Writer, 2016, 3:30 minutes.

“NCAI Video: Change the Mascot. Proud to Be (Mascots).” National Congress of American Indians, 2013, 2:00 minutes.

“Professor Deloria Discusses the Impacts of Stereotypes.” Arab American National Museum, February 19, 2011. 3:25 minutes.

“Reel Injun: On the Trail of the Hollywood Indian.” Neil Diamond, Director, 2010. Preview, 2:14 minutes, plus other clips.

See also “Q&A: ‘Reel Injun’ Director Neil Diamond,” Indian Country Today, January 20, 2011.

Vantage Point - “Take a Picture with a Real Indian” (James Luna performance). 2001, 2:41 minutes.

See also “Q and A: James Luna: The Native American Artist Talks about His ‘Take a Picture with a Real Indian’ Performance,” by Jess Righthand. Smithsonian Magazine, January 2011.

“What is Native American Misappropriation?” Vincent Schilling. 2013, 3:52 minutes.  

Native Organizations

Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN).

American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC).

Assembly of First Nations (AFN).

Association on American Indian Affairs (AAIA).

Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP).

Indian Law Resource Center (ILRC).

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK).

Métis National Council (MNC). http://www.mé  

National Coalition Against Racism in Sports and the Media (NCARSM)

National Congress of American Indians (NCAI).

National Indian Education Association (NIEA).

National Indian Gaming Association (NIGA).  

Native American Journalists Association (NAJA).  

Native American Rights Fund (NARF)


Arlene Hirschfelder and Paulette F. Molin are the coauthors of American Indian Stereotypes in the World of Children: A Reader and Bibliography (1999) and The Extraordinary Book of Native American Lists (2012), both published by The Scarecrow Press. Recent work includes guest curating the award-winning exhibition Contemporary Native Women Opening Doors to Change at the Mitchell Museum of the American Indian in Evanston, Illinois.